Parkinson Disease

Parkinson Disease Mohammad Ali
Mohammad Ali
      If you look at the photo on the right, you can definitely tell a familiar face this. Yes, he is a former professional heavyweight boxer from the United States, Cassius Clay, better known by the name of the famous Mohammad Ali. In addition to the controversy, which had refused to join the military service, he also has Parkinson's disease. What is Parkinson's Disease?
    Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that is closely related to age. Parkinson's disease is characterized pathologically by degeneration of the pigmented neurons neuromelamin, particularly in the substantia nigra pars kompakta accompanied by eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions (Lewy bodies), also called primary parkinsonism or idiopathic.
     Parkinsonism is a syndrome characterized by tremor breaks, rigidity, bradykinesia, and loss of postural reflexes due to decreased dopamine levels with a variety of causes. This syndrome is often referred to as Parkinson's Syndrome.

Parkinson's disease can be divided into 3 categories, namely:
1. Primary Parkinson  / idiopathic / paralysis agitans.
Often encountered in daily practice and chronic, but the cause was unclear.
Approximately 7 out of 8 cases of Parkinson's are of this type.
2. Secondary or symptomatic Parkinson
Can be due to post-viral encephalitis, post other infections: tuberculosis, syphilis meningovaskuler. Toxins such as 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1 ,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), Mn, CO, cyanide. Drugs that block dopamine receptors and dopamine reserves decrease as group phenothiazines, reserpine, tetrabenazin and others, such as post-traumatic cerebral hemorrhage repeated in boxers, lakuner infarct, cerebral tumor, hypoparatiroid and calcification.
3. Parkinson Plus Syndrome (Multiple System Degeneration)
In this group of symptoms is only part of the picture of the disease
overall. This species can be found in the Progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy (Shy-Drager syndrome, striatonigral degeneration, olivo-pontocerebellar degeneration, parkinsonism-amyotrophy syndrome), Degeneration corticobasal ganglionic, Syndrome dementia, normotensive hydrocephalus, and hereditary disorders (Wilson's disease, Huntington's disease, familial parkinsonism with peripheral neuropathy).

      What are causes of Parkinson Disease? The etiology of Parkinson's disease remains unknown primary. There are some allegations, among them are: infection by a virus, non-conventional (not yet known), abnormal reaction to a virus that is common, exposure to toxic substances is not yet known, the occurrence of premature or accelerated aging.
        Parkinson's is caused by damage to brain cells, precisely in the substance nigra. A group of cells that regulate the movement of unwanted (involuntary). As a result, people could not arrange / hold movements were not realized. The mechanism of how the damage was unclear, but there are some risk factors (multifactorial) that have been identified, namely:
1. Age
The incidence increased from 10 per 10,000 population at 50 to 200 of 10,000 inhabitants at the age of 80 years. It is related to the reaction microgilial affecting neuronal damage, particularly in the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease.
2. Genetic
Research shows that genetic mutations play a role in Parkinson's disease. That is a mutation in a gene-sinuklein the long arm of chromosome 4 (Park1) in patients with autosomal dominant Parkinsonism. In patients with autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease, was found deletions and point mutations in the parkin gene (PARK2) on chromosome 6. It also found mitochondrial dysfunction. There is a family history of Parkinson's disease increases the risk factor of Parkinson's disease by 8.8 times at age less than 70 years and 2.8 times at the age of 70 years. Although very rare, if it is caused by heredity, parkinsonism symptoms appear at a relatively young age. Genetics cases  in the USA is very little, undiscovered genetic cases in 100 patients were examined. In Europe too. German study found zero results in 70 patients. The classic example of genetic causes was found in families in Italy because cases of the disease occurred at the age of 46 years.
3. Environmental Factors
a) xenobiotics: Closely associated with exposure to pesticides can cause mitochondrial damage.
b) Employment: More on those with higher exposure to metal and old.
c) Infection: Exposure to influenza virus intrauterine also be a factor predisposition suspected Parkinson's disease through damage to the substantia nigra. Animal studies indicate the presence of damage substantia nigra by astroides Nocardia infection.
d) Diet: Consumption of high-calorie fat and increase oxidative stress, one of the mechanisms of neuronal damage in Parkinson's disease. Instead, coffee is neuroprotective.
4. Race
The incidence of Parkinson's disease is higher in whites than colored.
5. Head trauma
Craniocerebral injury can cause Parkinson's disease, although its role is still unclear.
6. Stress and depression
Some research suggests that depression may precede motor symptoms. Depression and stress associated with Parkinson's disease, stress and depression caused by an increase in turnover of catecholamines which stimulate oxidative stress.


•    Clinical Manifestations of Parkinson's Disease
•    Pathophysiology of Parkinson's Disease
•    Diagnosis of Parkinson's Disease
•    Medical Treatment and Therapy of Parkinson's Disease

Medical Books about Parkinson's Disease:

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