Diagnosis of Tuberculous Meningitis

      Diagnosis or suspected TB meningitis symptoms and signs of meningitis requires that accompanied the drive to clinical tuberculous infection and the results of X-ray photograph and cerebrospinal fluid showed infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculous meningitis can occur through two stages.

Tuberculous Meningitis

         Tuberculous meningitis is an inflammation of the lining of the brain or meninges caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculous meningitis is the result of hematogenous spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and limfogen of primary infection in the lung.

Treatment and Therapy for Viral Meningitis

      The most therapies for viral meningitis are supportive. Rest, rehydration, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory or pain medication may be given if required, the most important decision is either provide initial antimicrobial therapy for bacterial meningitis in the meantime, while waiting for the main cause can be identified.

Diagnosis of Viral Meningitis

A. Laboratory Studies
1. Hematology and chemistry tests should be performed
2. Examination of CSF is an important examination in the examination of the causes of meningitis. CT scans should be performed in cases related to abnormal neurological signs to exclude intracranial lesions or obstructive hydrocephalus before lumbar puncture (LP). CSF culture remains the criterion standard examination piogen of bacterial or aseptic meningitis. Again, patients who handled the majority of bacterial meningitis can occur with gram-negative staining and then the resulting aseptic. The following is a characteristic CSF is used to support the diagnosis of viral meningitis:

Clinical Manifestations of Viral Meningitis

• Most patients reported fever, headache, iritabilitasm nausea, vomiting, stiff neck, or fatigue within 18-36 hours earlier.

• Headache is almost always there and often reported with severe intensity.

• other constitutional symptoms are vomiting, diarrhea, cough and myalgia that arise in 50% of patients.

Pathophysiology of Viral Meningitis

         How can virus causing meningitis? this is explain about Pathophysiology of Viral Meningitis. Viral pathogens can reach the CNS access through 2 main pathways: hematogenous or neural. Hematogenous is the most common pathway of viral pathogens known. Penetration neural shows the distribution along the nerve and is usually limited to the herpes viruses (HSV-1, HSV-2, and varicella zoster virus [VZV] B virus), and the possibility of some enteroviruses.

Viral Meningitis

Meningitis in Brain
Aseptic meningitis is a general term that indicates non-pyogenic cellular responses induced by agents of different etiologies. Patients usually show acute meningeal symptoms, fever, CSF pleocytosis dominated by lymphocytes. After several laboratory tests, obtained the causes of aseptic meningitis is mostly derived from the virus, including enterovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV).

Clinical Symptoms of Meningitis

Meningitis is characterized by symptoms such as sudden high fever, lethargy, vomiting and seizures. The diagnosis is confirmed by examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSS) via lumbar puncture.

Pathophysiology of Tuberculous Meningitis

       Tuberculous meningitis usually appear as the spread of primary tuberculosis. Usually there is a primary focus of infection in the lungs, but can also be found in the abdomen (22.8 %), neck lymph nodes (2.1 %), with no evidence of primary focus (1.2 %). From the primary focus, the Mycobacteria enter the blood circulation via the thoracic duct and regional lymph nodes, and can cause severe infections such as miliary tuberculosis or just cause some focus metastases are usually quiet.
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