Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis of BPPV

Clinical Symptoms 
      BPPV occurs suddenly. Most patients are aware of the time they wake up, when to change position from lying to sitting. Patients feel dizzy spinning gradually diminished and disappeared. There is a lag between changes in head position with the onset of feeling dizzy spin. In general, feeling dizzy spinning arise very strong in the beginning and disappears after 30 seconds while its recurrent attacks become lighter. These symptoms are felt for days to months.

Pathophysiology of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)

       In the inner ear there are three semicircular canals. Three semicircular canals are located in areas that are mutually perpendicular to each other. At the base of each Semicircular canals, there is a widened portion which called ampula. In ampula there cupula, is a tool to detect the movement of fluid in semicircular canals as result of head movement. For example, when someone turned his head to the right, the fluid in the right  canal semicircularis will be left, so Cupula will deflecting towards ampula. Deflection is translated in a signal goes to the brain so that the sensation arises head turned to the right. With the availability of particles or debris in Semicircular canals, will reduce or even create cupula deflection towards the head instead of the actual direction of motion. It gives a signal that is not in accordance with the direction of head movement, so that arise in the form of vertigo sensation.

Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo

      Vertigo is a complaint which often encountered in practice, is often described as a sense of spinning, feeling shaky, unstable (giddiness, unsteadiness), or dizziness; description of the complaint is important to know in order not to be confused with headache or cephalalgia, especially because among the laity, the second term (dizziness and headache) are often used interchangeably.

Medical Treatment and Therapy of Vertigo

      Because the causes of vertigo are varied, while patients often feel very annoyed with vertigo symptoms, often using symptomatic treatment. The duration of treatment are varied. Most cases of therapy can be stopped after a few weeks and here are some commonly used classes of drugs:

How to Make Diagnosis of Vertigo

       How to diagnose Vertigo? How to make diagnosis vertigo use anamnesis and physical examination. Anamnesis includes clinical manifestations, family history, and treatment history. There is a family history of migraine, seizures, meniere disease, or deaf at a young age need to be asked and some medications can induce vertigo include ototoxic drugs, anti-epilepsy drugs, antihypertensives, and sedatives.

Pathophysiology of Vertigo

      Vertigo arise if there is a disruption of the body's balance tool caused a discrepancy between body position (afferent information) actually with what are perceived by the central nervous system (central consciousness). The most important afferent arrangement in this system is, vestibular or balance, array, which is continuously delivers its impulse to the center of balance. Other arrangement that role is an optical system, and proprioceptive, poles connecting the poles vestibular nuclei with nuclei N. III, IV and VI, the vestibulo reticular and vestibulospinal arrangement. Information that is useful to balance the body would be arrested by the receptors vestibular, visual, and proprioceptive; vestibular receptors biggest contributing, that more than 50%, followed later visual receptors and the smallest contribution is proprioceptive.

Clinical Manifestations of Vertigo

Clinical Manifestations of Vertigo medical treatment and therapy
       Clinical symptoms of patients suffering from dizziness and vertigo may include: symptoms of primary, secondary or non-specific symptoms. Primary symptom caused by disturbances in sensorium. Primary symptoms such as vertigo, impulsion, oscilopsia, ataxia, hearing loss symptoms.

Etiology of Vertigo

Etiology of Vertigo medical treatment and therapy
        Vertigo is a symptom, a series of causes including accidents, stress, inner ear disorders, drugs, too little or too much blood flow to the brain and others. Body position and control the sense of balance, through the organ of balance located in the inner ear. This organ has a nerve related to specific areas of the brain. Vertigo can be caused by abnormalities in the ear, in the nerve that connects the ear to the brain and within the brain itself. Balance is controlled by a Cerebellum that receive information about the position of the body of the organ of balance in the middle ear and the eye.

Classification of Vertigo

Vertigo can be triggered by abnormalities in the central (brain stem, cerebellum, or brain) or peripheral (inner ear or vestibular nerve).

Definition and Epidemiology of Vertigo

What is Vertigo? 
         Vertigo is a feeling as if moving or spinning, or as if the objects around, are moving or spinning, which is usually accompanied by nausea and loss of balance. Definition Vertigo, is a hallucination, the environment movement, seemed to revolve around the patient or the patient seemed to revolve around the environment.

How to Diagnose Guillain–Barré syndrome

To make the diagnosis of GBS used criterion is the most commonly used criteria from the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorder and Stroke (NINCDS), namely:

Medical Treatment and Therapy of Guillain–Barré syndrome

In most patients, it can heal itself. Generally, treatment is symptomatic. Although it is said that it can heal itself, should be considered a long treatment time and number of disability or (sequelae) is high enough to keep the treatment should be given. The goal of therapy is to reduce the severity of disease specific and accelerate healing through the immune system (immunotherapy).

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