Definition and Epidemiology of Vertigo

What is Vertigo? 
         Vertigo is a feeling as if moving or spinning, or as if the objects around, are moving or spinning, which is usually accompanied by nausea and loss of balance. Definition Vertigo, is a hallucination, the environment movement, seemed to revolve around the patient or the patient seemed to revolve around the environment.
Vertigo is not always the same as the dizziness. Dizziness is a nonspecific term that can be categorized into four subtypes depending role in the symptoms described by the patient. Dizziness may include vertigo, pre-syncope (feeling of suffocation caused by reduced cerebral perfusion), light-headness, dis-equilibrium (or does not shake the feeling balanced when standing). Vertigo may last only a few moments or may continue for several hours or even days. Patients often feel better when lying still, but vertigo can continue even if the patient does not move at all. Vertigo (from the Latin "vertere" which means rotating) refers to the sensation of spinning that interfere with a person's sense of balance, usually caused by disturbances in the balance system.

         Vertigo is a symptom that is often found in individuals with a prevalence of 7%. Several studies have tried to investigate the epidemiology dizziness, which includes non-vestibular vertigo and dizziness. Dizziness has been found to be the most common complaints expressed by patients, amounting to 20-30% of the general population. Of the four types of dizziness vertigo is most often at around 54%. In a study suggests vertigo are more common in women than men (2:1), approximately 88% of patients experiencing recurrent episodes. 
a. Frequency 
      In the United States, approximately 500,000 people suffer a stroke each year. Of stroke that occurs, 85% are ischemic stroke, and 1.5% of which occur in the cerebellum. The ratio of ischemic stroke compared with stroke cerebellum cerebellar hemorrhage is 3-5: 1. As many as 10% of cerebellar infarction patients, only to have symptoms of vertigo and imbalance. The incidence of multiple sclerosis ranged between 10-80 / 100 000 per year. Approximately 3000 cases of acoustic neuroma diagnosed each year in the United States. 
 b. Sex 
       Cerebrovascular disease incidence was slightly higher in men than women. In a series of patients with cerebellar infarction, the ratio of male patients compared to female is 2:1. Multiple sclerosis are two times more in women than in men. 
c. Age 
     Central vertigo is usually suffered by the population due to old age related risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, and stroke. On average, patients with cerebellar infarction aged 65 years, with half of the cases occur in those aged 60-80 years. In one series, patients with cerebellar hematoma, the average age is 70 years. 
d. Morbidity / Mortality 
      Vascular injury and infarction in the posterior circulation can cause permanent damage and disability. Recovery as occurs in acute peripheral vertigo can not be expected in central vertigo. In one series, cerebellar infarction has a mortality rate of 7% and 17% to the distribution of the superior cerebellar artery and posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Myocardial area supplied by the posterior inferior cerebellar artery is often associated with mass effect and emphasis brainstem and fourth ventricle, therefore, require medical management and aggressive neurosurgery. In one series of 94 patients, 20 of them came with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 8 which indicates a significant decrease in consciousness. The death rate other patients, namely the GCS is more than 8, is 20% of acoustic neuroma has a low mortality rate if it can be diagnosed quickly. Tumor can be removed without disturbing the N VII, but unilateral hearing loss can occur.

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