Medical Treatment and Therapy of Alzheimer's Disease

Medical Treatment and Therapy of Alzheimer's Disease
        Treatment of Alzheimer's disease is still very limited because of the cause and pathophysiological still unclear. Symptomatic and supportive treatment as only gives a sense of satisfaction in patients. Stimulant medication, vitamins B, C, and E do not have any beneficial effect.

Clinical Diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

There are several criteria for the  are:

1. Criteria for diagnosis of suspected Alzheimer's disease include:
• Dementia established by clinical examination and the mini-mental status examination or some similar examination, and confirmed with neuro psychological test
• Obtained impaired cognitive function deficits> 2
• No disturbance of consciousness level
• Onset between the ages of 40-90 years, or often> 65 years
• There is no systematic abnormalities or other brain diseases

Clinical Symptoms of Alzheimer Disease

       Onset of Alzheimer mental changes very slowly, so that patients and families do not know exactly when the disease began to appear. There are several stages of the development of Alzheimer's disease are:

Etiology and Pathogenesis of Alzheimer Disease

        The exact cause is unknown. Some of the causes that have been made alternative hypothesis is metal intoxication, impaired immune function, viral infections, air pollution / industrial, trauma, neurotransmitters, deficit filament formation cells, heriditer pre-disposition. Alzheimer's disease pathology abnormalities basics consisted of neuronal degeneration, the specific area of brain tissue death resulting in impaired cognitive function with progressive loss memory.

Alzheimer's Disease

Alzheimer's disease is a neurological disease that are irreversible, due to this disease include: damage to memory, judgment, decision-making, and overall physical orientation in a manner of speaking. Diagnosis is based on neuroscience, the causes of dementia, can only be done by autopsy.

Medical Treatment and Therapy of Vascular Dementia

Therapies for vascular dementia is addressed to the cause, controlling risk factors (secondary prevention) and treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms with regard to drug interactions. Other than that required multi-modality therapy for cognitive impairment and symptoms appropriate behavior.

Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis of Vascular Dementia

Vascular dementia attack occurs suddenly, preceded by a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke, the risk of vascular dementia 9 times in the first year after the attack and declined to 2 times as long as 25 years later. A history of risk factors, cerebrovascular disease should be aware of the possibility of the occurrence of vascular dementia.

Pathophysiology of Vascular Dementia

       Vascular dementia or vascular cognitive impairment, is the end result of brain damage caused by cerebrovascular disease. The existence of multiple infarcts, lacunar infarction, myocardial single in certain areas of the brain, Binswanger's syndrome, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, hypoperfusion, hemorrhage, and a variety of other mechanisms to the pathogenesis of vascular dementia onset.

Etiology and Risk Factors of Vascular Dementia

      Vascular dementia is caused by the presence of cerebral vascular disease. The existence of a single infarct in a specific location, episodes of hypotension, leukoaraiosis, complete infarction, and bleeding can also cause cognitive disorders. Dementia syndrome that occurs in vascular dementia is a consequence of the lesion hypoxia, ischemia, or bleeding in the brain.

Vascular Dementia

       Vascular dementia is a heterogeneous group of conditions that includes all of dementia syndromes caused by ischemia, hemorrhage, anoxic or hypoxic brain with cognitive impairment ranging from mild to the most severe, and not necessarily with a prominent memory impairment.

Diagnosis of Dementia

How to make diagnosis of dementia?
Dementia is characterized by the presence of impaired cognition, function and behavior, resulting in interference with work, daily activities and social. Diagnosis is based on history, physical examination and neuropsychological assessment. History / interview include disease onset (acute / chronic), disease (stable / progressive, improved), age at onset occurred, general medical and neurological history, changes neurobehaviour, psychiatric history, history-related etiology (such as infections, nutritional deficiencies , drug use, and family history). The physical examination includes vital signs, general examination, neurological and neuropsychological examination. Investigations include laboratory and radiological examinations.


        Dementia is a clinical syndrome that includes loss of intellectual functions and memory were so heavy that causes dysfunction of daily life - days. Dementia is a condition when a person experiences memory loss and other thinking power which significantly interfere with activities of daily living. Meanwhile, according to Lumbantobing (1995) is a set of symptoms of dementia degeneration in intellectual functioning, usually marked disruption of at least three functions namely language, memory, visuospacial, and emotional.

Medical Treatment and Therapy of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo

medical treatment and therapy of BPPV
       Management of BPPV include observation, medication to suppress vestibular function (vestibulosuppressan), canalith repositioning, and surgery. Primary election governance is observed, Because BPPV can own resolution in weekly or monthly. Therefore, most experts recommend that only observation. However, during the observation time of patients still suffer from vertigo. As a result, patients are faced with the possibility of falling when vertigo blaze while he was on the move.
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