Alzheimer's disease is a neurological disease that are irreversible, due to this disease include: damage to memory, judgment, decision-making, and overall physical orientation in a manner of speaking. Diagnosis is based on neuroscience, the causes of dementia, can only be done by autopsy.Common signs are emerging in the form of loss of neurons, senile, extracellular amyloid β peptide-containing, and neurofibril damage, as well as the hiperfosfor of microtubular protein. Amyloid in senile plaques is the result of the pieces of a larger protein, β-amyloid precursor protein, three series of protease enzymes, namely α-, β-, and γ-sekretase. γ-sekretase typically emerge and are responsible for the formation of β-amyloid peptide-Aβ42-42 group is an amino acid that has an important pathogenetic significance because it is a soluble fiber that is not toxic and accumulates in the form of senile plaques in the form of masses of amyloid fibers in the isolated cerebral cortex of Alzheimer's patients.
Alzheimer's disease was first discovered in 1907 by an expert in psychiatry and neuropathology named Alois Alzheimer. He observed a 51-year-old woman, who suffered intellectual impairment and memory and does not know the return to the place of residence, while the woman was not impaired limb coordination and reflexes. At autopsy experiencing atrophy of the brain seem diffuse and symmetry, and microscopically visible parts of the cortical brain is neuritis plaque and neurofibrillary degeneration.
Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease, which are divided into 2 groups: the epidemiology: those who suffered at the age of approximately 58 years referred to as early onset whereas those who suffered at the age of 58 years referred to as late onset.
Alzheimer's disease can occur at any age, 96% of cases found after age 40 years and older. Schoenburg and Coleangus (1987) reported the incidence by age: 4.4 / 1000.000 at the age of 30-50 years, 95.8 / 100 000 at age> 80 years. The prevalence of the disease is about 300 per 100,000 population in the age group 60-69 years, 3200 in the age group 70-79 years, and 10 800 at age 80. Estimated that in 2000 there were 2 million people with Alzheimer's disease. While in Indonesia is estimated to amount lanjt age range, 18.5 million people with the incidence and prevalence of Alzheimer's disease is not known with certainty.
By sex, prevalence three times more women than men. This may be a reflection of the life expectancy of women older than men. From some studies no differences for gender.