Etiology and Risk Factors of Vascular Dementia

      Vascular dementia is caused by the presence of cerebral vascular disease. The existence of a single infarct in a specific location, episodes of hypotension, leukoaraiosis, complete infarction, and bleeding can also cause cognitive disorders. Dementia syndrome that occurs in vascular dementia is a consequence of the lesion hypoxia, ischemia, or bleeding in the brain.

      The study of the causes of death in patients with dementia showed that the circulatory system disorders (eg, ischemic heart disease) is the most common cause of direct mortality in vascular dementia, followed by diseases of the respiratory system (eg, pneumonia). The prevalence of vascular dementia occurs higher in men than in women and the incidence increases with age.
      The prevalence of vascular dementia will increase along with the increase of age of a person, and more often found in men. A Swedish study showed the risk of vascular dementia in men at 34.5% and females 19.4%.
     In addition, factors that should be explored is the history of previous illness. From the study of stroke patients found a high prevalence of dementia. From the evaluation of 252 patients who suffered a stroke in the previous 3 months, showed that 26.3% of those suffering from dementia. This figure is significant because it is very far from the comparison group (control) is 3.2%. In patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) obtained 23.5% suffered from dementia, 23.5% had borderline dementia, and 53% no found symptoms of dementia.

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