How can virus causing meningitis? this is explain about Pathophysiology of Viral Meningitis. Viral pathogens can reach the CNS access through 2 main pathways: hematogenous or neural. Hematogenous is the most common pathway of viral pathogens known. Penetration neural shows the distribution along the nerve and is usually limited to the herpes viruses (HSV-1, HSV-2, and varicella zoster virus [VZV] B virus), and the possibility of some enteroviruses.
Multiple defenses to prevent the virus inoculum of causing clinically significant infections. This includes systemic and local immune responses, mucosal and skin barrier and the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The virus replicates in early organ systems (ie, respiratory or gastrointestinal mucosa) and gain access to the blood vessels. Primary viremia virus introduced into the reticuloendothelial organs (liver, spleen and lymph nodes) if incurred in addition to replicating the immunological defense, the secondary viremia may arise, which are thought to be responsible in the CNS. Rapid viral replication appears to play a role in host defense against.
Actual mechanism of viral penetration into the CNS is not fully understood. The virus can pass through the BBB directly at the level of the capillary endothelium through a defect or natural (posttrauma area and place less lainyang BBB). Inflammatory response seen in the form of pleocytosis; polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) causes the difference in the number of cells in the first 24-48 hours, followed by the addition of monocytes and lymphocytes. CSF lymphocytes telag identified as T cells, although B cell immunity is also a defense against some viruses.
Evidence suggests that some viruses can gain access to the CNS by retrograde transport along the nerve roots. For example, HSV-1 encephalitis path is through the olfactory or the trigeminal nerve root, the virus is carried by olfactory fibers to the basal frontal and anterior temporal lobes.