Causes and Risk Factors of Stroke

Causes and Risks Factors of Stroke medical treatment and therapy
         What are causes and risk factors of Stroke? nice question and we must to know the answer. Causes of stroke include atherosclerosis (thrombosis), embolism, hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage and rupture causing saccular aneurysm. Stroke is usually accompanied by one or several other diseases such as hypertension, heart disease, increased blood fats, diabetes mellitus or peripheral vascular disease.

       Some causes of stroke can be classified into two groups, namely stroke caused vascular factors and factors outside the blood vessels.
A. Vascular Factors
1. Cerebral vascular Atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis is the accumulation of fat aterom or the inner lining of blood vessels. If aterom has covered the entire lumen of the blood vessel blood flow will be blocked. As a result, the network is in front of the blood vessels caused by lack of oxygen and can further tissue necrosis.
2. Malformations of the brain arteries
The existence of an aneurysm (weakness) brain blood vessels and thin the blood vessel wall will facilitate torn blood vessel walls in the event of an increase in blood pressure. Aneurysms were divided into two congenital (congenital) and no congenital birth (acquired after birth). Aneurysm does not give any symptoms until a time to break itself if there is an increase in blood flow to the brain and there was a stroke.
3. Deep vein thrombosis (blockage)
Causes such as thrombus, embolus, worms, parasites, or leukemia that can clog arteries.
4. Rupture of cerebral vascular
Rupture of cerebral blood vessels may occur in the subarachnoid space (under the lining of the brain) or intracerebral (brain tissue). The result is blood from the arteries of the brain will continue to flow out and no one can stop. Blood will cover up and suppress most of the brain tissue that brain tissue hypoxia depressed will experience along with the death of brain tissue, possibly accompanied by biological death.

B. Factors outside the blood vessels
Decrease in perfusion (flow) of blood to the brain
It can be caused by many things such as chronic hypertension that cause changes in cardiac anatomy, congestive heart failure or hypercholesterolemia. The change causes the blood to become relatively more concentrated and the flow becomes slower. Embolus or thrombus that flows in the veins stuck in one of the branches of small blood vessels of the brain that block blood flow. This incident will cause the death of brain tissue. Embolus or thrombus may originate from blood vessels in the legs are apart when we move, from the lungs, fat embolus particularly affected in people who are obese or major postoperative, such as caesarean section and fractures

 Potential factors of stroke incidence can be divided into two broad categories namely:
A. Risk factors that can not be modified
 1. Age
Based on this research, it is known that the older the age, the greater the risk of stroke. This relates to the process of degeneration (aging) that occur naturally and are generally in older people, the blood vessels more rigid because of the presence of plaque (atherosclerosis).
2. Sex (gender)
Men have a greater risk for stroke compared with women. It is thought to be related that men tend to smoke. Smoking itself was found to damage the lining of blood vessels which can disrupt the body's blood flow.
3.  Hereditary
It is associated with a family history of stroke. People with a history of stroke in my family, have a greater risk for stroke compared with those without a history of stroke in her family.
4.  Race / ethnicity
From various studies it was found that the white race has a greater chance of stroke than the black race.

B. Factors that can be modified
 1. Hypertension (high blood pressure)
People who have high blood pressure have a great chance of having a stroke. Even hypertension is the biggest cause (etiology) of incident stroke itself. This is because in the case of hypertension, may be an interruption of blood flow in which the body's blood vessels to narrow diameter (vasoconstriction) so that blood flow to the brain would be reduced. With the reduction in cerebral blood flow (ADO), the brain will be deprived of oxygen and glucose supply (hypoxia), as supply decreases continuously, the brain tissue long will experience death.
2. Heart disease
Presence of heart disease such as coronary heart disease, infak infarction (death of heart muscle) is also a major factor for stroke. As we know, that the central blood flow in the body is located in the heart. When the central organization of the flow of blood is destroyed, the body's blood flow will experience disturbances including blood flow to the brain. Because of the disturbance, brain tissue can experience sudden or gradual death.
 3. Diabetes mellitus
Diabetes mellitus (DM) have an increased risk of stroke. It is associated with blood vessels DM patients generally become more rigid (not flexible). An increase or decrease in blood glucose levels suddenly can also cause the death of brain tissue.
4. Hypercholesterolemia
Hypercholesterolemia is a condition in which excess cholesterol in the blood (hyper = excess). Excess cholesterol, especially LDL type will result in the formation of plaque / crust on the blood vessels, which will be more and stack so that it can interfere with blood flow.
5. Obesity
Obesity is also a risk factor for stroke. It is associated with high levels of fat and cholesterol in the blood in people with obesity, which is usually the levels of LDL (bad cholesterol) levels higher than HDLnya (good fats / benefit).
6. Smoke
Based on the research found that people who smoked appeared to have blood fibrinogen levels higher than those who do not smoke. Increased levels of fibrinogen may facilitate the occurrence of thickening of the blood vessels so that blood vessels become narrow and stiff thus can cause the interruption of blood flow.

•    Types of Stroke
•    Ischemic Stroke
•    Post-Acute Phase Therapy of Stroke


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