What is Meningitis?
        Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges (brain and spinal membrane) which caused by infection. by bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae, or protozoa, which can occur acute and chronic. Meningitis is divided into two groups based on the change in the cerebrospinal fluid, namely: the serous meningitis and purulent meningitis.
Serous meningitis is characterized by the number of cells and proteins are elevated, accompanied by cerebrospinal fluid which clear. the most common cause are Bacteria Tuberculosis and virus. Purulent meningitis or bacterial meningitis is meningitis which is Acute and produce exudate of pus, and not caused by specific bacteria or virus. Meningococcus meningitis is purulent meningitis which the most frequently occurring.

        Transmission of bacteria may occur in direct contact with patients and droplet infection that is exposed to splash saliva, sputum, runny nose, sneezing fluid and throat fluids of patients. Respiratory tract is a major port d'entree on transmission this disease. The bacteria is spread to others through air exchange of respiratory and throat secretions entering haematogenously  into the cerebrospinal fluid and multiply therein causing inflammation of the meninges and the brain.

Etiology of Meningitis
        Meningitis can be caused by viruses, bacteria, rickettsiae, fungi, worms and protozoa. The most common cause is a virus and bacteria. Meningitis caused by bacterial meningitis result in more fatal than other causes, because the mechanism of brain damage and disruption caused by bacteria or bacterial products is more severe. Infectious Agent purulent meningitis have a tendency in certain age groups, ie groups of neonates most often caused by E. coli, hemolytic S.beta, and Listeria monositogenes. Under 5 years age group (toddlers) caused by H.influenzae, meningococcus and Pneumococcus. Age group 5-20 years caused by Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus Pneumococcus, and in the adult (> 20 years) caused by the meningococcus, Pneumococcus, Stafilocccus, Streptococcus and Listeria. Causes of meningitis serous most common are the Tuberculosis bacteria and viruses.

        Meningitis caused by the virus have a better prognosis, tend to be benign and self-limiting. The cause of viral meningitis are the most often found in the Mumpsvirus, echovirus, and Coxsackie virus, whereas Herpes simplex, Herpes zooster, and enteroviruses less likely to cause aseptic meningitis (viral).

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