Viral Encephalitis

Definition of Viral Encephalitis
       In normal circumstances, the Central Nervous System (CNS) are well protected against attack from organisms that can cause inflammation, and inflammation in the CNS is the most unusual complication of an infection acquired daily. One of the CNS inflammation is encephalitis, which is inflammation of the brain (Encephalon). Viral Encephalitis is the inflammation of encephalon which  cause is a virus. Encephalitis caused by a viral infection causing parenchymal damage varying from mild to very severe.

      Encephalitis occurs in two forms, namely the form of primary and secondary forms. Primary encephalitis involves direct viral infection of the brain and spinal cord. While secondary encephalitis, is a viral infection first occurs elsewhere in the body and then to the brain.

       The incidence of encephalitis in the world is difficult to determine. The annual incidence of encephalitis virus is most likely underestimated, especially in developing countries, due to problems with the detection of pathogens. Japanese encephalitis affects at least 50,000 people per year. In a study from Finland, the incidence of viral encephalitis in adults is 1.4 cases per 100,000 people per year. Herpes Simplex Virus is the most common organisms identified as the cause (16%), followed by zooster Varicella Virus (5%), mumps virus (4%), and influenza virus A (4%).  According to statistics from 214 encephalitis, 54% (115 people) from encephalitis patients are children. Viruses are the most common herpes simplex virus (31%), followed by ECHO virus (17%).

       Cases of herpes simplex encephalitis approximately 2,000 cases occur in the United States, and represents 10% of all cases of encephalitis in the country. Approximately 30 to 70 percent fatal, and there is little that ends with neurological disability. The highest incidence occurred in the neonatal age, 5-30 years, and in over 50 years, with an incubation period of 4-6 days.

     This disease is endemic in areas of Asia, from Japan, the Philippines, Taiwan, Korea, China, Indo-China, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and India to. It is estimated that there are 35,000 cases of Japanese encephalitis in Asia every year. The mortality rate ranges from 20-30%. Children aged 1-15 years are infected most frequently. In Indonesian, Japanese encephalitis disease research has been conducted since 1975, showed a seroprevalence of 10-75%.

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